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Micro-biome in Honeybee colony - or why to stop treating bee

 
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Che Guebuddha
Golden Bee


Joined: 31 Jan 2012
Posts: 1549
Location: Hårlev, Stevns Kommune, Denmark

PostPosted: Tue Feb 03, 2015 10:58 am    Post subject: Micro-biome in Honeybee colony - or why to stop treating bee Reply with quote

Micro-biome of a bee colony consists of so many strains of bactria, fungi and yeats. What effects do treatments and often hive manipulation has on all those?

Interesting research ; http://www.liveprayer.net/downloads/animals/bees/Bacteria%20of%20the%20apiary.pdf
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zaunreiter
Moderator Bee


Joined: 26 Nov 2007
Posts: 3097
Location: Germany, NorthWest

PostPosted: Tue Feb 03, 2015 11:08 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I couldn't open the link, but here's another one:
https://ia601901.us.archive.org/24/items/bacteriaofapiary00whit/bacteriaofapiary00whit.pdf

Whew, is that really 1906?

Some informations from a recent discussion:

1) During a winter cluster the number and quantity of microbe species is reduced and consolidated - thus stabilized. The same should be true for clustering during swarming and building a new home.

2) Propolis has antimicrobial action - but is very selective. While it kills all sorts of pathogens and microbes, bee-microbes can withstand the propolis.


Also see:

Routes of acquisition of the gut microbiota of Apis mellifera
J. Elijah Powell, et al

ABSTRACT

Studies of newly emerged Apis mellifera worker bees have demonstrated that their guts are colonized by a consistent core microbiota within several days of eclosure. We conducted experiments aimed at illuminating the transmission routes and spatio-temporal colonization dynamics of this microbiota. Experimental groups of newly emerged workers were maintained in cup cages and exposed to different potential transmission sources. Colonization patterns were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to assess community sizes and deep sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to assess community composition. In addition, we monitored the establishment of the ileum and rectum communities within workers sampled over time from natural hive conditions. The study verified that workers initially lack gut bacteria and gain large characteristic communities in the ileum and rectum within 4 to 6 days within hives. Typical communities, resembling those of workers within hives, were established in the presence of nurse workers or nurse worker fecal material, and atypical communities of non-core or highly skewed compositions were established when workers were exposed only to oral trophallaxis or hive components (comb, honey, bee bread). The core species of Gram-negative bacteria, Snodgrassella alvi, Gilliamella apicola, and Frischella perrara were dependent on the presence of nurses or hindgut material, whereas some Gram-positive species were more often transferred through exposure to hive components. These results indicate aspects of the colony life cycle and behavior that are key to the propagation of the characteristic honey bee gut microbiota.
from: http://aem.asm.org/content/early/2014/09/15/AEM.01861-14.abstract

-------------------
citation of another work:
We have ongoing research, large field trials with Symbeeotic, together with the French Institute INRA.

We have shown that one of the lactic acid bacteria in Symbeeotic produce high amounts of the substance 2-Heptanone. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/store/10.1111/iwj.12345/asset/iwj12345.pdf?v=1&t=hzz7t76z&s=a7de673fd98b97ca5736b653b9a99f4ab10ea9a7

...that the bees use to fight of Varroa mites. (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0047432).

from: http://symbeeotic.apicellae.se/research-3/
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zaunreiter
Moderator Bee


Joined: 26 Nov 2007
Posts: 3097
Location: Germany, NorthWest

PostPosted: Tue Feb 03, 2015 11:41 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Excellent lecture - with pictures of the bee bacterias:

https://www.alfredstate.edu/files/downloads/microbesinbees-Sammataro.pdf
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Che Guebuddha
Golden Bee


Joined: 31 Jan 2012
Posts: 1549
Location: Hårlev, Stevns Kommune, Denmark

PostPosted: Tue Feb 03, 2015 12:30 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

The link I provide opens very slowly for some reason, it takes maybe 4-5 minutes to do so. Yes a very old study Smile
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AugustC
Silver Bee


Joined: 08 Jul 2013
Posts: 613
Location: Malton, North Yorkshire

PostPosted: Tue Feb 03, 2015 1:00 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

It is certainly worth considering that Thymol, probably one of the most widely used treatments for varroa, is much more effective as a fungicide. In all balanced ecosytems it is fungal flora that controls bacterial growth.
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Che Guebuddha
Golden Bee


Joined: 31 Jan 2012
Posts: 1549
Location: Hårlev, Stevns Kommune, Denmark

PostPosted: Tue Feb 03, 2015 1:31 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

On top of that Tymol is also effecting bee pheromone communication and this alone can lead to unbalanced conditions like superseadure of otherwise a perfect queen and who knowers what else. I'm sure Michael Bush is onto something when talking about treatments killing not just mites but also micro-biome
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zaunreiter
Moderator Bee


Joined: 26 Nov 2007
Posts: 3097
Location: Germany, NorthWest

PostPosted: Tue Feb 03, 2015 2:15 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Sugar feeding also could affect the microbiome. As do agricultural pesticides.

It is all connected to each other in the web of life.

Plain non-treatment and/or leave-alone beekeeping is not the answer to the big picture. Short term we need to keep the bees alive, longterm humankinds needs to change the lifestyle. Humankind needs to save the ressources, needs to share the ressources and needs to localize agriculture and food growing.

Google Earth Pro is now free for use. Just go and get a download and license. You will be very surprised how far 3 kilometers are and where your bees go and forage. For sure. It is a complete different world for them.
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Che Guebuddha
Golden Bee


Joined: 31 Jan 2012
Posts: 1549
Location: Hårlev, Stevns Kommune, Denmark

PostPosted: Sat Feb 07, 2015 8:18 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
Plain non-treatment and/or leave-alone beekeeping is not the answer to the big picture.


I agree its not the answer to the whole issue but it sure is a part of it. This all issue is like a puzzle picture and each puzzle is important.

Yes the environment needs less/none of the pesticides and it needs much more biodiversity. Happy that Denmark is turning 20.000 Hectares into pesticide free pollinator zones (not around me though). But if treatments are causing unbalanced conditions for the micro-biom it is important not to use them and find an alternative instead.

I know of beekeepers who dont have any agriculture around and still they can have losses due to Varroa and they still do have Varroa even though they treat twice a year with Formic and Oxalic acid. So it seems it is not only pesticides and lack of biodiversity which is causing unbalance between Varroa and Honeybees but treatments also.

Another thing could be as well the swarm prevention and no brood break in conventional hives run for honey profit (supering and queen cell removal).

I understand that you had bad experience with treatment free and of course you generalize from your local experience but you cant say that treatment free doesn't work for some.

I will see how my bees fare after this winter treatment free since last year I did see many bees with DWV and I could see often Varroa walking on bees. My bees also moved from a biodiverse Sweden to mono-crop agri environment here in Denmark and Varroa here might be more aggressive than the one in Sweden I moved from.
Seeley sais that 70% of wild swarms dont make it so this is my guideline and if I have 30% treatment free survival I am happy with it and will increase the colonies again. For me only 100% loss would be bad and sad and Im not sure what I would do after that. But lets wait and see.
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zaunreiter
Moderator Bee


Joined: 26 Nov 2007
Posts: 3097
Location: Germany, NorthWest

PostPosted: Sat Feb 07, 2015 10:32 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

I don't have bad experience with treatment-free beekeeping. I had and still have treatment free hives. And I don't generalize, please don't put words in my mouth.

I don't like people like Mr Bush when they say, they don't have any losses and all you have to do is leave them bees alone. This produces a lot of expectations, huge losses in bee lifes, time and money. Unnecessarily.

My message is: have a plan. Don't follow dogmas, follow your heart. React to emergencies. Don't sacrify your bees to your ideologies. Small steps, expand on success. Learn beekeeping first. Treatment-free beekeeping is neither easy nor simple in certain environments. So slow down. Nothing else is my message.

And of course keep an eye on things around your bee hives. The landscape.

Bernhard
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